It was observed over the years that the Five Elements relate to each other in different ways.
The Generating Sequence or Mother-Child Relationship
As in the cycle of the seasons, each element generates another, i.e., one element is the "mother" of the next.
|Wood (Liver) creates Fire (Heart)||Wood (Liver) is the Mother of Fire (Heart)|
|Fire (Heart) creates Earth (Spleen)||Fire (Heart) is the Mother of Earth (Spleen)|
|Earth (Spleen) creates Metal (Lungs)||Earth (Spleen) is the Mother of Metal (Lungs)|
|Metal (Lungs) creates Water (Kidneys)||Metal (Lungs) is the Mother of Water (Kidneys)|
|Water (Kidneys) creates Wood (Liver)||Water (Kidneys) is the Mother of Wood (Liver)|
Naturally, therefore, each element is generated by another: Fire is the child of Wood, Earth is the child of Fire, etc. In nature, we see this in the seasonal changes: Winter transforms into Spring, Spring changes into Summer.
Controlling Sequence or Father-Child relationship Each element is said to control, check, or regulate another.
Each element is of course then controlled by another.
This cycle ensures that a balance is maintained between elements.
The "father-child" symbology relates to traditional family roles, where the father was the patriarchal head of the household. The mother, by comparison, is seen as the creative and nurturing force.
This is the same as the Ko cycle, but in this sequence, one Element is said to "over-control" or "destroy" another, causing the controlled element to become Deficient. This happens when balance breaks down so that one element becomes excessive in relationship to another.
i.e. - An excess of Wood energy will over-control Earth, causing Earth to become Deficient.
This cycle is the reverse of the Ko cycle or controlling sequence. In the Insulting Sequence, the element that should BE controlled becomes imbalanced and excessive, and controls the element that normally controls it.
i.e. - Instead of Metal controlling Wood, if Wood becomes excessive, it can "insult" Metal, causing it to become imbalanced. This is akin to the child rebelling and insulting or trying to discipline its father.
Element in Excess overacts on another (Overacting sequence)
Element in Deficiency insulted by another (Insulting sequence)
Element in Excess drains from Mother (pathological Sheng cycle)
Element in Deficiency fails to nourish Child (pathological Sheng cycle)